Marketing activities directed towards the channel as part of ‘push’ strategy are more effective when accompanied by a well-designed and well-executed ‘pull’ strategy that activates consumer demand. This is a popular in case of consumer durables such as textiles, readymade garments, etc. Understanding how online marketplaces work, and how to build a presence in this new digital age, is a critical skill set for a strategic marketeer looking at channel strategy. Consequently, the literature offers many different defin 4. Some big and reputed service providers train the individuals to perform a service and franchise their services, e.g., employment Agencies, Travel Agencies, etc. For example, when automobile manufacturers try to enforce policies on their dealers, it leads to a conflict. The channel must be flexible and efficient. For example, a sizeable sale of cars for Tamil Nadu takes place in Pondicherry due to sales tax concessions available there. A channel’s horizontal dimension (width) is determined by the number of participants of any one type on the same level in the channel. Although many retailers prefer to buy directly from the manufacturers, this is not always the case. Channels create utility, improve exchange efficiency and help match supply and demand. Prohibited Content 3. These companies also spend heavily on advertising and use the ‘market pull’ strategy. Again, both models can work, but clarity in that is very, very important. Finally, some firms opt for a low volume approach with very few channels selected. Direct channels of distribution can take the following forms: a. Basic Push Promotional Strategies in Marketing Channels Promotional strategies emphasizing the push approach initiated by the manufacturer but requiring channel member support and follow-through can take many forms. Marketing channels represent one avenue among many in the field of marketing and sales. Example- Bata, Titan, Reebok. It is used when the producer wants to severely limit the number of intermediaries and wants to maintain control over the service levels and outputs offered by the resellers. What are Marketing Channels? For instance, bulky industrial goods are moved directly by the manufacturers. Choice of a channel of distribution involves the selection of the best possible combination of middlemen or intermediaries. The firm must also understand the buying specifications of the retailers themselves. A marketing channel is the series of interdependent marketing institutions that facilitate transfer of title to a product as it moves from producer to ultimate consumer or industrial user. Rationale behind Using Marketing Channels 3. Here, two or more companies join hands to exploit a marketing opportunity. Discount Houses – Discount houses are characterized by an emphasis on price as their main sales appeal. Considering the vastness of the internet, however, being found by consumers who are not yet aware of your product becomes difficult. (a) Manufacturer – C&F Agent – Redistribution Stockist – Retailer – Consumer – 4 Levels. The wholesaler assists the producer by making products more accessible to buyers. A marketing channel system decisions affects the other marketing decisions also, and therefore are among the most critical decisions. The channel system of an organisation evolves in response to local opportunities and conditions. While middlemen can also be won over to carry a company’s product line if the company is willing to pay more commission than its competitors, the power might shift to the channel. Administered VMS looks at the co-ordination of the successive stages of manufacturing and distribution through the power of one of the channel members who exercises control over the others. Content Guidelines 2. Given the complex nature of multiple segments that are tapped, multi-channel marketing has become the order of the day. Marketing channels must not just see markets but they must also make markets as one of the chief roles of marketing channels is to convert potential buyers into profitable customers. Be strategic about how you start marketing through the channels that you use. Also, there is a mutual benefit to both organisations, which they are otherwise not likely to achieve. This does not mean that perishables can be sold only in areas close to the place of production. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, https://archive.org/details/ost-business-core-concepts-of-marketing, http://www.texample.net/tikz/examples/marketing-distribution-channel/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distribution_(business), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_channel, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_distribution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_mix, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c7/B2B_Marketing_Roles_v2.png, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/department_store, http://www.boundless.com//marketing/definition/marketing-channel, http://www.flickr.com/photos/59574125@N05/5487448787/sizes/n/in/photostream/. b. d. Financing – The marketing channels work towards the acquisition and allocation of funds required to finance inventories at different levels of the marketing channels. The requirements of institu­tional buyers are very different from individual buyers. Just making enquiries about the product, getting it, etc. Conflict. Thus, it is a red good which needs a very extensive distribution network. And, who are our ultimate users and buyers? Amazon, for example, sells a huge number of brands on their website. There is a need to know what the customer needs, where they buy, when they buy, why they buy from certain outlets, and how they buy. h. Payment – The channel members also assume responsibility for the buyers honouring their payments to the sellers through banks and other financial instruments. (a) Exclusive distribution – Here the distributor has an exclusive relation with the producer and is not allowed to keep competitors’ products and brands. Consider your unique selling points. Importance. Channel choice is also greatly influenced by channel objectives. Product:The goods and/or services offered by a company to its customers. Channel selection refers to selecting individual channel members. Strength and weakness of intermediaries. Long-term success depends on marketing across these channels. Intensive distribution focuses on delivering a firm’s goods to as many storefronts as possible and maximizing the amount of sales to pursue scale economies. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. The chosen channel will significantly affect and be affected by the rest of the marketing mix. In designing the marketing channel, the marketer must analyse customers’ desired service output levels (lot size, waiting time, convenience, product variety, service backup). Next we want to very much focus with our channel partners on our roles and responsibilities at different stages of a customer's life cycle. There is some freedom in most industries for a firm to determine which channels they will use, and how much volume each channel will receive. Channel choice begins with two questions: to whom shall we sell this merchandise immediately? Copying the competitor’s game plan may be the easiest thing to do. Functions 4. Channel strategy is relevant to all six of the basic distribution decisions faced by firms: 1) the role of distribution in the firm’s overall objectives and strategies, 2) the role of distribution in the marketing mix, 3) the design of marketing channels, 4) the selection of channel members, 5) management of the channel, and 6) evaluation of channel member performances. It provides the producer with wide market coverage information about local market trends in an efficient manner. This is an very simple means to specifically acquire guide by on-line. The agent middlemen may be commission agents, export merchants who manage trade on behalf of the manufacturer. 2. Once you have completed the test, click on 'Submit Answers for Grading' to get your results. Good distribution strategies can contribute a strongly to customer value and to create a competitive advantage for a firm. Price:The amount of money paid by customers to purchase the product. In addition channel decisions include relatively long-term commitments with other firms as well as a set of policies and procedures. iii. 4. Purchased only after considerable shopping to compare prices and merchandise characteristics. A product that is perishable in nature would need a shorter channel. A zero level channel – As the name suggests, in this type of a channel, there are no intermediaries or zero level of intermediaries. B2B brands typically use a “direct” or “indirect” sales channel strategy to build revenue. Conflicts can be functional or dysfunctional. They bring suppliers and buyers together. ii. From the buyer’s perspective, the wholesaler typically brings together a wide assortment of products and lessens the need to deal directly with a large number or producers. Content Filtration 6. Marketers in the present dynamic market should adopt the holistic perspective and ensure that marketing decisions in all these different areas are made to collectively maximize value. This creates an interesting relationship, similar to the retail relationship in traditional channel marketing, whereas certain digital storefronts are highly valuable strategic partners. This strategy is used by established companies and by new companies seeking distribution. Describe the different functions performed by wholesalers in channel distributions. Marketing distribution channel | TikZ example. Exclusive distribution strategies work best for firms that focus on low volume, high margin sales. Instead, most use intermediaries to bring their products to market. (a) Manufacturer – C&F Agent – Stockist – Retailer-Consumers – 3 Levels, 5. In managing its intermediaries, the firm must decide how much effort to devote to push versus pull marketing. 2. 1. High fashion and other luxury goods focus on being hard to find through limited channels and low volume of production. Channel objectives are based on the requirements of the purchasers and users, the overall marketing strategy, and the … A ‘push’ strategy uses the manufacturer’s sales force, trade promotional money, or other means to induce intermediaries to carry, promote, and sell the product to end-users. Product variety – When the product variety sought by customers is high, selling through indirect channels is advisable. So let's take first, the first stage of being demand generation; who's going to generate demand? Gone are the days when organisations sold to a single target market through a single channel. For level of sales below X1 (as shown in the figure above) provider’s sales agency will have economic advantage over their own sales force. Here, independent channel components integrate on contractual lines to attain economies of scale and maximize the market impact. The route that the product takes on its way from production to the consumer is important because a marketer must decide which route or channel is best for his particular product. Non-store Retailing – Non-store retailing describes sales made to ultimate consumers outside of a traditional retail store setting. To meet the ever-changing conditions in the marketplace, the channel arrangements would require modifications over a period of time. However, most companies prefer distribution through middle­men as against direct distribution, to economize on costs. Marketing channels are the ways that goods and services are made available for use by the consumers. Most stores are small and have weekly sales of only a few hundred dollars. e. Risk taking – The channel members assume the risk for carrying out the channel work. Picking the right marketing communication channel for your message will contribute significantly to the success of … ii. An example of differences in perception is when the manufacturer is hoping for higher sales and expects the channel member to carry higher inventory, while the channel member perceives the market conditions to be otherwise. After having selected the channel alternative, it is time for the organisation to select individual channel members and motivate and evaluate them, and modify the channel arrangements over a period of time to provide better service to the end users. Because markets and the marketing environment are continu­ally changing, the firm must be prepared to make channel revi­sions: individual members may be dropped or added, channels in specific markets may be modified, and, sometimes, the whole channel system may be redesigned. Of particular importance is the question, “from whom do my retail outlets prefer to buy? Make every employee a brand ambassador. Deciding on the marketing channel is among the most complex and challenging tasks facing a firm. Generally speaking, there are three ways to frame the distribution intensity decision: This is the highest in both number of channels and volume within each channel. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Example- teleshopping network, Proactive acne kit, etc. For example, if an organisation sells to customers that are within the territory of the agents, this can lead to a conflict. Wholesaling includes all activities required to market goods and services to businesses, institutions, or industrial users who are motivated to buy for resale or to produce and market other products and services. Information – supplying information about markets to producers and information about products and suppliers to buyers. It involves a careful study and consideration of many factors stated below. 1. Wholesalers perform a number of useful functions within the channel of distributions. Generally shorter channels are observed. The channel manager must be very specific in describing channel tasks, and must define how these tasks will change depending upon the situation. will take immense effort from the customer. Each channel alternative can be evaluated against the following criteria: i. Channel choice is also greatly influenced by channel objectives. For example, Grahak Peth, Apana Bazar, etc. Marketing channels can make the services “available” and “accessible” to the target customers. In order to be heard inside a factory, one will have to shout louder than the noise-level of the ma­chines. g. Ordering – This function is with regards to the communication of channel members regarding the intention to purchase. b. (c) Intensive distribution – This consists of the manufacturer placing the goods or services in as many outlets as possible while the distributors are also handling many competitors’ products and brands. This system requires eight different contacts. Channel objectives are based on the requirements of the purchasers and users, the overall marketing strategy, and the long-run goals of the corporation. Earlier, fast food chains had emerged to suit the changing life-styles of certain sections of people in society. Multi-channel conflict exists when the manufacturer establishes two or more channels that are competing with each other in selling to the same market. Hence, zero level or direct channel is more preferred. As organizations develop their marketing channel strategies, an important question arises regarding distribution intensity. The Japanese have the ‘just in time’ inventory system by which they have cut down tremendously on inventory holding. The Fig. The fol­lowing factors influence the design and selection of marketing channels: Usually, perishable products have a short channel. Industrial market is made up of a smaller number of relatively large buyers compared to consumer market and the buyers are not scattered over a wide area rather they are concentrated. Consumer goods category includes huge array of products. There is no need for currency notes and coins in this method. The industry’s output which is sold for OEM is distributed direct from tyre factories to manufacturers. An example of a large retailer would be Wal-Mart shown here. ‘Pull’ strategy is appropriate when there is high brand loyalty and high involvement in the category, when consumers are able to perceive differences between brands, and when they choose the brand before they go to the store. Answer: False Page: 61 Level of difficulty: Medium 100. On the other hand, frequently used and ‘low margin’ items like cigarettes have a long chain of middlemen before they reach the ultimate consumers. Given the lower return on investments in the retail business, organisations would be better off investing their money in their main business rather than taking up retailing or other channel functions. Channel Strategy refers to the activities carried out by organization so as to pass the product or service from production stage to end users hands. The channel is instrumental in overcoming the gaps between the producers and consumers in terms of time, place and possession or ownership. Purchased only from a dealer equipped to render prompt and reasonable product service. Generally more lengthy channels are observed for these products. Department Stores – Department stores are characterized by their very wide product mixes. 3. Most companies now use a mix of channels where each channel reaches a different segment of buyers and delivers the right products to each at the least cost. A Horizontal Marketing System (HMS) involves cooperation between two or more organisations on the same level of distribution to accomplish a common goal. For this purpose, marketing channels are used to take the products from the manufacturing organisations to the final consumers. In fact, this should be your prime consideration. This coming together may be on a temporary or permanent basis. For making the cues stronger, the emphasis is usually on advertising through the media. The choice of marketing channel is one of the most critical an organization can make, and affects all other forms of the marketing mix. 5. The choice of the channel to use is a fundamental decision for the manufacturer where a number of factors and objectives have to be considered as a basis for such decision. There is a need to know what the customer needs, where they buy, when they buy, why they buy from certain outlets, and how they buy. What role does distribution play in the firm's overall objectives and strategy 2. An example of a corporate vertical marketing system would be a company such as Apple, which has its own retail stores as well as designing and creating the products to be sold in those retail stores. Core Concepts of Marketing by John Burnett. In cases when a company is just getting started, or an older company is trying to carve out a new market niche, the channel objectives may be the dominant force on channel choice. Most services are sold directly from provider to the consumer or industrial buyer. For example, food products, garments, clothing, etc. The producer/manufacturer and the final consumer form a part of the channel and are at both ends of the channel. They vary from direct selling, to using one or more intermediaries. A channel comprises several intermediaries. Lifetime Value of the Customer . For example, vacuum cleaner, water cooler, etc. There are no intermediaries in the most direct channel (a zero-level channel). The cue gives him the idea that the soft drink (goal) will quench his thirst. Similarly, in order to be seen or heard by the consumers in the market-place, the cue should be stronger than that of com­petitors. Many organisations lack the resources (financial as well as other resources), to carry out direct marketing and reach out to their many customers without the help of any intermediary. Manufacturer – Wholesaler — Consumer – 1 Level. This strategy focuses on fewer channels yet retains a desire for higher volumes to capture scale economies in production. How to Turn Marketing Strategy into Marketing Execution in 8 Steps. Franchises – Over the years, large chain store retailers have posed a serious competitive threat to small storeowners. The title may be transferred directly, as and when the commodity is bought or sold outright, or indirectly, as and when the transaction is negotiated through a functional middleman such as an agent or broker who does not take credit to it. Aspinwall has given a color classification to products, based on their rating on five factors, which greatly helps us in deciding on the length of the channel for different product categories. This is ideal for differentiated organizations with a strong brand and a desire for scarcity. The channel manager must be very specific in describing the tasks, and must define how these tasks will change depending upon the situation. Marketing channels are the ways that goods and services are made available for use by the consumers. Channel Co-Operation, Conflict and Competition: Marketing channels involve a number of channel intermediaries, and this is always likely to result in a conflict of interests. Type of the product – Depending upon the nature of the product, the length of the channel needs to be decided. Wholesalers can provide warehousing, inventory control and order processing, transportation, information, and selling functions. Big companies like Brooke Bond and Bata have direct distribution facilities. Technology has disrupted some of the logic behind these channel decisions, as digital storefronts have grown to be highly influential, easily accessible to global markets, and substantially cheaper than retail space. Rationale behind Using Marketing Channels, Factors Determining the Length of the Channel: Size of the Market, Order Lot Size, Service Requirements, Product Variety and Type of Product, or Consumer Goods, Industrial Goods and Services (With Examples). Channel length can vary from zero to n in case of consumer goods. Selective distribution focuses on narrowing down the number of channels within the distribution strategy, but not the overall volume of goods sold through those channels. In total, non-store retailing accounts for a relatively small percentage of total retail sales, but it is growing and very important with certain types of merchandise, such as life insurance, cigarettes, magazines, books, CDs, and clothing. These are critical to understand when performing case analysis. This is common for goods such as soda, snacks, household items, and other common low cost goods. On the other hand we can see in Fig. f. Channels used in consumer and industrial products – The producer and the consumer are a part of every channel. Deciding a proper channel of distribution is not an easy task. 7. Channel objectives are based on the requirements of the purchasers and users, the overall marketing strategy, and the long-run goals of the corporation. Marketing Mathematics. Furthermore, chains are able to attract many customers because of their convenient locations, made possible by their financial resources and expertise in selecting locations. Once a company has committed to a distribution model, it may be hard to change. 2. 3. Differences in perception about the market requirements and their responses may lead to conflict. 3.1 (a) depicts three producers, each using direct marketing to reach three consumers. e. More than three levels – In some cases, one can observe longer marketing channels, that is, channels that have more than three intermediaries. Other channel members can be useful to the producer in designing the product, packaging it, pricing it, promoting it, and distributing it through the most effective channels. The general economic condition of a country also affects distri­bution. Such intermediaries, through their experience, specialization, contacts and scale of operation, offer other channel members more than they can achieve on their own. As a result, they can set retail prices that are lower than those of their small competitors, and thereby increase their share of the market. An ability to do this requires the channel manager to evaluate all phases of the distribution network. Marketing Channel Design 8. For example, if the channel member is an exclusive dealer, he may have to comply with all the manufacturer’s terms, even if he does not want to. The discounts substantially lower their cost compared to costs of single unit retailers. The Fig. A company’s channel decisions directly affect every other marketing decision. Stores vary in size, in the kinds of services that are provided, in the assortment of merchandise they carry, and in many other respects. During a period of inflation, cost reduction becomes a paramount task and a company may have to phase out C-class markets (i.e., markets having a very low sales volume). Distribution channels are also constantly evolving with time. He’s got a knack for writing actionable content (no fluff here) and knows the secrets to growing your traffic. Successful marketing happens when you send the right message and reach the right market using their marketing communication channel (medium) of choice. i. To achieve those broad goals, a sales channel managementstrategy should align the efforts of in-house and external teams. Mostly direct channel, i.e. f. Physical possession – The channel members also take the responsibility of storage of goods during the successive stages to the final consumers. New markets and/or increasing sales in existing markets buying specifications of ultimate users buyers. 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