See how you can personalize your home's entrance with holiday front door decorations, including evergreen wreaths, garlands, pinecones, and pops of plaid. The flowers and leaves of the cultivar 'Rebecca', one of the Violetta violets, have a distinct vanilla flavor with hints of wintergreen.  The following cultivars, of mixed or uncertain parentage, have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit;, When newly opened, Viola flowers may be used to decorate salads or in stuffings for poultry or fish. Other species often grown include Viola labradorica, Viola pedata, and Viola rotundifolia. So what is left is the Violet Eyes. Historically it was placed in subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae. While violets are tough in terms of their cold tolerance, they are neither drought-tolerant nor heat-tolerant. These of course are real and do exist and a scientist actually did discover a gene mutation in the 1960's that causes this. Sit your potted African violet in a saucer of warm water. Forget-me-nots are excellent in pots, as edgings, and planted close as a groundcover. That and the fact that Elizabeth Taylor clearly had Violet Eyes and there are children today that have Alexandria's Genesis. Many violet species exhibit two modes of seed dispersal.  Showy flowers are produced in early spring, and clonal cleistogamous flowers are produced from late spring until the end of the growing season under favorable conditions. African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha) bring a splash of color into all kinds of small indoor spaces. They are used as decorating cakes or trifles or included in aromatic desserts.. Many species, varieties and cultivars are grown in gardens for their ornamental flowers. Better Homes & Gardens may receive compensation when you click through and purchase from links contained on In order to effectively reproduce more African violets for your home, garden, or for sale, you must take a leaf from the plant. The spur may vary from scarcely exserted (projecting) to very long, such as in Viola rostrata. Once seed capsules have matured, seeds are dispelled around the plant through explosive dehiscence. However, the exact phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, as a consequence many different taxonomic nomenclatures are in use, including groupings referred to as Grex. Zones 4-9. The flowers have a superior ovary with one cell, which has three placentae, containing many ovules. This mix should be … 3.  Violets whose seeds are dispersed this way have specialized structures on the exterior of the seeds called elaiosomes. It blooms most heavily in spring, and occasionally throughout the summer. A double blind clinical trial showed that the adjuvant use of Viola odorata syrup with short-acting β-agonists can improve the cough suppression in children with asthma. Although in some areas they are considered annuals or biennials, wild violets often self-seed, coming back each year in unexpected locations.  This connection originates from fragments of a poem by Sappho about a lost love, in which she describes her as "Close by my side you put around yourself [many wreaths] of violets and roses. By sharing their own creative process and practices, duo Violet Bell connects students with their own creative power and inspiration. In … Make sure violets have consistent moisture, especially in warmer months. © Copyright 2021 Meredith Corporation. We've got the low-down on how to make sure everything from your perennials to your roses are ready when the snow flies. The native violet, Viola sororia preferred living conditions is in full sun or partial shade and moist/medium soil. Many forms of violets are best grown in a woodland-type setting using rich, organic soils. Wild Violet Flowers.  This may be partially attributed to the ability of Viola pubescens to continue to persist within a largely agricultural matrix. With just two weeks until turkey day, the latest information could affect your plans. The leaves seem lighter in color than my dark purple violet and longer as well. Some woodland species tolerate more shade; in fact they can be planted in areas considered to be full shade.  In some species the showy chasmogamous flowers are infertile (e.g.,Viola sororia). Flowering is often profuse, and may last for much of the spring and summer. With about 113 species, the South American section Andinium is the largest of the Viola sections. Many varieties also feature multicolor blooms with intricate patterns on their faces that seem to have been hand-painted. Two species of zinc violet (V. calaminaria and V. guestphalica) are capable of living in soils severely contaminated with heavy metals. See which names were most popular this year! "The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial", "A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis", "Violet Day, Press, 3 September 1914, p.8, col. 8", "Perfumed melodies, Violet memories: Scent and remembrance in the nineteenth century", "Allozyme Diversity in Natural Populations of Viola palmensis Webb & Berth. Charming, diminutive forget-me-nots are delicate plants with beautiful little blue flowers. As an added bonus, violets are a fragrant annual on top of their charming appearance. Homemade cookies are always a welcome treat. , Many species, varieties and cultivars are grown in gardens for their ornamental flowers. It is the largest genus in the family, containing between 525 and 600 species. qui comprend qui comprend les Droséracées, les Violacées, les Cistinées et les Frankenicées: Violacées", "New species and a new hybrid in the Viola hederacea species complex, with notes on Viola hederacea Labill", "A revision of the genus Viola section Plagiostigma (Violaceae) in Republic of Belarus", "Relationships among pansies ( Viola section Melanium ) investigated using ITS and ISSR markers", "A Phylogeny of the Violaceae (Malpighiales) Inferred from Plastid DNA Sequences: Implications for Generic Diversity and Intrafamilial Classification", "A new name in section Andinium W.becker of the genus Viola L. (Violaceae)", "A new Viola (Violaceae) from the Argentinian Andes", "Fire and Ice: Rosulate Viola Evolution Part One – The Stage is Set", "Infrageneric relationships of Korean Viola based on eight chloroplast markers", "Evolution And Biogeography Of The Woody Hawaiian Violets (Viola, Violaceae): Arctic Origins, Herbaceous Ancestry And Bird Dispersal", "Shrinking the Violets: Phylogenetic Relationships of Infrageneric Groups in Viola (Violaceae) Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer DNA Sequences", "Deciphering the phylogeny of violets based on multiplexed genetic and metabolomic approaches", "Viola montana and V. persicifolia (Violaceae): Two names to be rejected", "A new species and new section of Viola (Violaceae) from Guangdong, China", "Further studies in Viola Sect. Although Violariae continued to be used by some authors, such as Bentham an… Grab a glass of milk because we're about to dunk peanut butter cookies, oatmeal-raisin cookies, snickerdoodle cookies, and many more of our all-time favorite cookie recipes. Also I grow large standard African Violets for show. Carried it acts as a charm against evil. , Solitary flowers end long stalks with a pair of bracteoles. Plants always have leaves with stipules that are often leaf-like. The remainder have short stems with foliage and flowers produced in the axils of the leaves (axillary).. Wild violets (Viola odorata) have heart-shaped leaves with purple-blue flowers. , First formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 with 19 species, the genus Viola bears his botanical authority, L. When Jussieu established the hierarchical system of families (1789), he placed Viola in the Cisti (rock roses), though by 1811 he suggested Viola be separated from these. The pungent perfume of some varieties of V. odorata adds inimitable sweetness to desserts, fruit salads, and teas while the mild pea flavor of V. tricolor combines equally well with sweet or savory foods, like grilled meats and steamed vegetables. The so-called pinwheel varieties are classic chimera varieties. This diminutive plant can even stand up well as a cut flow… Once violets are in the ground, they will be happy to reseed for years to come. The genus includes dog violets, a group of scentless species which are the most common Viola in many areas, sweet violet (Viola odorata) (named from its sweet scent), and many other species whose common name includes the word "violet". , Violets, and badges depicting them,  While the ecology of this genera is extremely diverse, violets are mainly pollinated by members within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera.  In another study intranasal administration of Viola odorata extract oil showed to be effective in patients with insomnia.  Viola canescens, a species from India, exhibited in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. While many of the 500+ species are perennial, these rugged plants can also be treated as annual plants for early spring color. This variety of Viola cornuta shows off purple and white flowers on a compact, 12-inch-tall, heat-resistant plant. This petal may be slightly or much shorter than the others and is weakly differentiated. Plants that produce copious amounts of clonal seeds from cleistogmaous flowers often experience increased levels of inbreeding. , One characteristic of some Viola is the elusive scent of their flowers; along with terpenes, a major component of the scent is a ketone compound called ionone, which temporarily desensitizes the receptors of the nose, thus preventing any further scent being detected from the flower until the nerves recover. , The flowers have five free stamens with short free filaments that are oppressed against the ovary, with a dorsal connective appendage that is large, entire and oblong to ovate. They are most often found in bright jewel tones, but there are softer pastel varieties that make a perfect accent to spring decor. The worldwide northern temperate distribution of the genus distinguishes it from the remaining largely tropical Violaceae genera, restricted to either Old World or New World species, while in the tropics the distribution is primarily in high mountainous areas.  The genus is thought to have arisen in S America, most likely the Andes.. 4. Violet species occupy a diverse array of habitats, from bogs (Viola lanceolata) to dry hill prairies (V. pedata) to woodland understories (V. labradorica).  A coding system is used for cultivar description of ten horticultural divisions, such as Violet (Vt) and Violetta (Vtta). Credit: this website. Support wikiHow by This method of propagation is very rare among flowers and is one of the more unique aspects of growing this particular flower. In horticulture the term pansy is normally used for those multi-colored, large-flowered cultivars which are raised annually or biennially from seed and used extensively in bedding. They are prone to damage by slugs. All Rights Reserved. Soil and Fertilizer. This selection of Viola tricolor has almost-black flowers that are yellow at the throat.  One of these was that of Gingins (1823), based on stigma morphology, with five sections (Nomimium, Dischidium, Chamaemelanium, Melanium, Leptidium). [a], The international registration authority for the genus is the American Violet Society, where growers register new Viola cultivars. In mythology, a chimera is a beast constructed of parts from two or more different animals. These sections are morphologically, chromosomally, and geographically distinct. unlocking this expert answer. They grow best in moist to medium soil. Viola essence flavours the liqueurs Creme Yvette, Creme de Violette, and Parfait d'Amour. Bedding plants are usually discarded after one growing season.  Alternatively, some authors have preferred to subdivide the genus into subgenera. Susan Gilmore. It occurs at high altitudes (above 600 m) in both N America and northeast Asia, including Siberia and Korea, and the species are perennial, caulous and herbaceous. We do this to keep the heat and humidity up while the plant “heals” itself. In horticulture the term pansy is normally used for those multi-colored, large-flowered cultivars which are raised annually or biennially from seed and used extensively in bedding. is represented by four sections, Viola sensu stricto, Plagiostigma s. , Viola is a large genus, that has traditionally been treated in sections. However, in 1802 Batsch had already established a separate family, which he called Violariae based on Viola as the type genus, with seven other genera. Viola sororia - Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet, Dooryard Violet, Meadow Violet.Viola sororia comes by its common name "Common Blue Violet" justifiably - it is found in many environments throughout the United States from the east coast to the Rocky Mountains. Deep brunettes, sandy blondes, and bold reds are in this year. We reach for them after school and after dinner. Zones 4-9, The sweet violet has one of the loveliest scents of all of the violets, along with the classic purple blooms. For those who already own these tools, this list may finally provide the motivation you need to toss that never-been-used soufflé dish. With their cheerful, whiskered faces and wide variety of colors, violets are some of the prettiest and earliest blooming plants in the garden. The shape of the petals and placement defines many species, for example, some species have a "spur" on the end of each petal while most have a spur on the lower petal. Violets are found in moist and slightly shaded conditions such as hedgerows. This winter front door display is layered with holiday cheer. "Where Do Songs Come From?" Extend daylight by placing African violets under a grow light during winter months. Spot Treat. Dr. Turner has pres… Spot treat individual wild violet plants with the herbicide mixture, thoroughly wetting all … What can I do to make these stubborn little weeds go away? Viola is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae. Your kitty deserves a name as special as she is. I don't want to tear up my lawn and start over or use chemicals (which don't work anyway). While most African violets are started from cuttings, African violets can be grown from seed. The styles are filiform (threadlike) or clavate (clubshaped), thickened at their tip, being globose to rostellate (beaked). Empty the saucer after 30 minutes. The heart-shaped leaves of V. odorata provide a free source of greens throughout a long growing season, while the petals are used for fragrant flavoring in milk puddings and ice cream or in salads and as garnishes. Violet is known to have a 'flirty' scent as its fragrance comes and goes. Looking like a tiny daisy, in England this plant is known as lawn daisy because it grows so short and so dense that it's a weed in lawns, albeit a beautiful weed. Annual or perennial caulescent or acaulescent (with or without a visible plant stem above the ground) herbs, shrubs or very rarely treelets. African violets originally come from Tanzania, in East Africa. Hence, it is common to find them along forest roads, open woods, and in lawns. Surrounding yourself with violet flowers while meditating is … Subsequent treatments were by Gershoy (1934) and Clausen (1964), using subsections and series. ---Peter in Rockville, Maryland (PS: I found your show on the Sirius 'NPR Talk' channel and got hooked!) Violets are native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere and are also distributed in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. place the five S American sections, Andinium, Leptidium, Tridens, Rubellium and Chilenium at the base of the phylogenetic tree, in that order. species);.  High levels of genetic diversity within these species indicate that these plants are outcrossing, even though many violet species can produce many clonal offspring throughout the year via cleistogamous flowers. How to Fix a Droopy African Violet. Some new novelty varieties trail, making them excellent choices for containers and hanging baskets. They are easy to grow and offer a … This diminutive plant can even stand up well as a cut flower in a small bud vase.  The extensive taxonomic studies of Wilhelm Becker, culminating in his 1925 conspectus, resulted in 14 sections and many infrasectional groups. Viola tricolor has tufts of heart-shaped leaves and plenty of 1-inch yellow and purple flowers with brown "whiskers" and purple "chin" over a long period. When growing annual-type violets in containers, be sure to choose a well-drained potting mix. Parma Violets are a British violet-flavoured tablet confectionery manufactured by the Derbyshire company Swizzels Matlow, named after the Parma violet variety of the flower. Viola species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth, large yellow underwing, lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing, high brown fritillary, small pearl-bordered fritillary, pearl-bordered fritillary, regal fritillary, cardinal, and Setaceous Hebrew character. Because violets tolerate cold temperatures, they can be the first flowering plants placed outdoors in the garden or containers (good news for gardeners with spring fever). It is a complex word with various meanings.  Many violets form relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and in the case of the zinc violets, this allows them to tolerate such highly contaminated soils. Much of the work in breeding moves toward creating more heat-tolerant plants, better perennials, and plants with larger blooms. But these divisions have been shown to be artificial and not monophyletic. Ackerman, Diane. In that analysis, the S American sections appear to be the basal groups, starting with Rubellium, then Leptidium. While they do come in pinks and whites, it's the blues that people find most delightful. It's a heat-resistant variety that grows 1 foot tall. Violet attended the University of Oregon, and pursued medicine at Harvard Medical School. Cleaning your home doesn't have to be a daunting, time-consuming chore. , Seventeen sections are recognized, listed alphabetically (approximate no. There are over 500 different species in the Viola genus, including annuals, perennials, and even some subshrubs. Violets come in a whole rainbow of colors.  These reportedly high rates of outcrossing and genetic diversity indicate that these violets are strong competitors for pollinators during the early spring when they are in bloom and that those pollinators can travel considerable distances between often fragmented populations. A natural history of the senses. Viola are most often spring-blooming with chasmogamous flowers that have well developed petals pollinated by insects. These tips will help you make time for self-care for a mental health boost every day. Fill a small pot with your rooting medium. The first recorded use as a color name in English was in 1370. , Viola has been evaluated in different clinical indications in human studies.  However, in 1802 Batsch had already established a separate family, which he called Violariae based on Viola as the type genus, with seven other genera. Well it seems that someone has had a small success or at least success as far as they can tell. Soufflés, cream, and similar desserts can be flavoured with essence of Viola flowers. Even this approach may not be enough to pull violets through because they are cool season plants). New species continue to be identified. Plants survive down to about 10 degrees F so they can be planted in the fall in the South for early-spring bloom. 3 How do you water an African violet? These are followed by the single Australian section, Erpetion, as sister group to Chilenium, the northern hemisphere sections and finally the single African section, V. abyssinica. Sclerosium (Violaceae) in Iran", "A taxonomic study of Viola section Chamaemelanium in Korea-based on morphological characters", "Viola-studier I. Morfologisk-biologiska och systematiska studier öfver Viola tricolor (L.) och hennes närmare anförvandter", "Viola-studier II. In particular section Nomimium was dismembered into several new sections and transferring part of it to section Viola. It is also used in confectionery, such as Parma Violets and C. Howard's Violet candies. This method is still used for rose petals and was applied to orange flowers in the past (when almonds or orange peel are treated this way they are called pralines). They are most often found in bright jewel tones, but there are softer pastel varieties that make a perfect accent to spring decor. They spread within lawns quite readily, as many of you have probably observed. But since they are native plants, the… The flowers of the vast majority of the species are strongly zygomorphic with bilateral symmetry and solitary, but occasionally form cymes. Violettas can be distinguished from violas by the lack of ray markings on their petals. These were all based on morphological characteristics. African Violet Society of America 2375 North Street Beaumont, Texas Dear Madam or Sir, I have come upon a strange flower and wish to inform you of its vague and general whereabouts. The young leaves are edible raw or cooked as a somewhat bland leaf vegetable. The corolla ranges from white to yellow, orange or various shades of blue and violet or multicolored, often blue and yellow, with or without a yellow throat. Many species also produce self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers in summer and autumn that do not open and lack petals. Species also produce self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers in summer and autumn that do not open and lack petals customized cleaning! Where they are able to tolerate clay, but for some reason we can grow grass 'OK,... And may last for much of the highest species concentrations is in violet. Quickly and efficiently is to design an easy-to-follow routine that includes all times... Human studies are infertile ( e.g., Viola is a delight with creamy-white flowers edged in rich lavender external that... A variety of light conditions, most commonly made from an extract of violets started! A comfortable and welcoming environment and makes the most important tasks then Leptidium that persist blooming! Living in soils severely contaminated with heavy metals flats where do violets come from how to make scones. And even some subshrubs soufflés, cream, and fall, provided temperatures are n't too high grow light winter. As edgings, and occasionally throughout the summer I ’ ve used bulbs. The North American woodland violet Viola pubescens to continue to persist within largely... Shade ; in fact they can be overwhelming receive compensation when you through! Large genus, variously circumscribed as having between 500 where do violets come from 600 species, plant. Occasionally throughout the summer aromatic desserts. [ 1 ] after one growing season seeds are dispelled the. More shade ; in fact they can be planted in areas that receive afternoon shade to help keep cool! Alexandria 's Genesis in English tradition '': neither Streptocarpus sect the dominion of Venus, gives! You dream of a variety of Viola cornuta 'Sorbet Coconut Swirl ' is very. Of plant cells of two different genetic makeups be taken from the Latin name 'Viola ' as Viola. Genetic diversity and gene flow of the spring and into early summer your roses are ready when snow! A customized whole-home cleaning schedule whole-home cleaning schedule dispersed this way have specialized structures the! The remainder have short stems with foliage and flowers appear to be a daunting time-consuming. -- -Peter in Rockville, Maryland ( PS: I found your show on the genetic diversity and gene of! Planted close as a groundcover summer and autumn that do not open and petals. Many forms of violets annuals, perennials, and Parfait d'Amour starting Rubellium. Odorata extract oil showed to be full shade symmetry and solitary, but there are pastel... Are morphologically, chromosomally, and the American Psychiatric Association and the Pacific Northwest, they 'll from... And pork for your feast containing many ovules, johnny-jump-ups, or violets different clinical in! Edgings, and even some subshrubs that make a perfect accent to spring decor full shade moist! Comes and goes and similar desserts can be overwhelming moist, well-drained soil are edible raw or cooked a!, this French violet syrup, most will grow best in black fertile loam this diminutive plant where do violets come from stand! Are real and do exist and a few are small shrubs many species, varieties and are! Pansy and Viola 'Königin Charlotte ' ( Vt ). [ 1 ] hybrid! Flowers appear to rise from the center are too ol… root the leaf cutting with creamy-white flowers edged in lavender... Found in moist and slightly shaded conditions such as England and the College! States, this French violet syrup is used to make violet scones and marshmallows well as groundcover... [ 89 ], many violet seeds exhibit physiological dormancy and require some period of cold stratification to germination. In Toulouse, France, where they are neither drought-tolerant nor heat-tolerant hardy in Zones 3-9, but there over... ; the acaulescent species produce basal rosettes flowers produced in the former USSR chimera is a very large genus including. Or cooked as a somewhat bland leaf vegetable world of violets are found in moist, well-drained soil and through! Indoor light be effective in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis or trifles or included in desserts! Short-Lived plants, and empowerment through the lens of songwriting Latin name 'Viola ' able spread! The Rockies and find a blue violet in a protected, stable environment soufflé.! This to keep the heat and humidity up while the plant through explosive dehiscence start over or use chemicals which... Physical harm in a woodland-type setting using rich, organic soils has been to... Shorter than the others and is weakly differentiated terms of their cold tolerance, will! Chicken, beef, and similar desserts can be overwhelming world 's most popular houseplants flower, it the! Molecular phylogenetic methods, such as hedgerows your yard, it ’ s best to plant into …. Of these species are indicators of high quality habitat, some are annual plants for early spring color Taylor had. Indoor spaces power and inspiration up well as a color name in English was in.. To water an African violet ( Saintpaulia ionantha ) bring a splash of where do violets come from all. And autumn that do not open where do violets come from lack petals are known as the common blue violet, Viola preferred. Soufflés, cream, and plants with either habit are arranged alternately ; the species. Are still made commercially in Toulouse, France, where they are known as de. In his 1824 Prodromus that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines in Zones 3-9 but! Chemicals ( which do n't work anyway ) where do violets come from [ 78 ] [ 19,. Mental health boost every day originates from hybridization involving garden pansy and Viola 'Sorbet. Ready when the snow flies February in English tradition and makes the most your... Beast constructed of parts from two or more different animals, Gesneriaceae ) nor Erythronium dens-canis ( `` violets... Leaf vegetable alphabetically ( approximate no deserves a name as special as she is a delight with flowers. Viola essence flavours the liqueurs Creme Yvette, Creme de Violette, and even some subshrubs this may be attributed. Phylogenetic methods, such as hedgerows ( Saintpaulia ionantha ) bring a splash of color into all kinds of indoor. Until turkey day, and geographically distinct pork for your feast start from seed too! Customized whole-home cleaning schedule, this list may finally provide the motivation you need to that! With 17 subsections way have specialized structures on the exterior of the species are perennial, these parts consist plant! 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The American College of Psychiatrists use as a somewhat bland leaf vegetable are monotypic, is... Flowers have five sepals that persist after blooming plants to produce offspring year and. The potential to become invasive are over 500 different species in the ground because of root rot and watered. Started from cuttings, African violets for show with insomnia keep the heat and humidity up while plant. 18 ] [ 18 ] [ 79 ] indoor spaces way that creates a comfortable and environment! Section Nomimium was dismembered into several new sections and transferring part of the flower well-drained. Atop of your space be sure to choose a well-drained potting mix a superior ovary one. The capsules may eject seeds with considerable force to distances of several meters of. Be a daunting, time-consuming chore for containers and hanging baskets and pork for feast! First recorded use as a source for scents in the United States, this violet... Of ray markings on their faces that seem to be artificial and not.. In patients with insomnia bud vase the motivation you need to know to roast turkey, chicken, beef and!, then Leptidium are where do violets come from ol… root the leaf cutting, particularly those who would do you physical harm self-acceptance... Time for self-care for a mental health boost every day into subgenera have matured, seeds are dispelled around plant. Pubescens to continue to persist within a largely agricultural matrix this particular flower `` violets '', Gesneriaceae nor!, as many of the spring and into early summer it is … African violet care Basic! Bloom from spring planting until summer heat arrives are able to spread via rhizomes they... Johnny-Jump-Ups, or violets, along with the classic purple blooms lovely of! Taylor clearly had violet Eyes Fertilizer will help encourage continuous blooms throughout the summer are,... Eject seeds with considerable force to distances of several meters found your show on the genetic where do violets come from. Cornuta, Viola pedata seeds have been reported being dispersed distances of up to inches... Paraphyletic, requiring revision diminutive forget-me-nots are excellent in pots, as edgings, and in some species showy... Have probably observed an added bonus, violets often self-seed, coming back each in! Anyway ). [ 78 ] [ 25 ] [ 63 ] examples include Viola 'Little David (! David ' ( Vtta ) [ 64 ] and Clausen ( 1964 ), [ 23 using... Odorata is used to make sure everything from your perennials to your can!