From 1984 onward, the introduced parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi and some introduced coccinellid predators were released on 54 occasions along the spreading front of the infestation.E. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> The impact of biological control programmes for the control of Phenacoccus manihoti on cassava in Zambia is summarized. Classical biological control of coccids has been especially successful (DeBach, Rosen & Kennett 1971), and appeared for P. manihoti. 1983. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> [2][12] The successful elimination of the cassava mealybug across the African continent increased cassava yields and improved farmer livelihoods, without any negative environmental side-effects. In 1981 and 1982, the introduced encyrtid parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was first [4] Mealybugs are noted for the production of dermal wax secretions. An unforgettable example is the successful classical control of the cassava mealy bug, Phenacoccus manihoti that left Nigeria (and some other African countries) miserable in the early 1980s. Population growth patterns for. & Eluwa, M. C. 1983. endobj K��c�E���y��yK��bk���ھ&��Z�� ���"_f�L�C�\,`>ї|�jk���ױmb��p�Pr�z'�b��]�EH��/p)x���u�e���l�9.�ܦ#�Z�ͭv0R�`��sƓ���t�*ב�=F�9�`a�&���PRN:��ĩN*c�|�ً�.�0�>تq�8�]�p�X�f�6\�"v�&j�>ڸ-�eTH⩜�$�e��D&R�&�. In the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug P. manihoti was accidentally introduced to Africa. [5] Females have the highest fecundity on the first or second day of oviposition. endobj endobj Biological Control of the cassava mealybug. 17 0 obj [4] The sensilla can work as mechanoreceptors, thermo-hygro receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory organs. Influence of linamarin and rutin on biological performances of, Le Ru, B., et al,. endobj An exotic parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi(De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced and released in 2014 to control the pest. [10] The cassava mealybug also uses antennal sensilla as a way to identify host-plants. Undoubtedly, biological control has much appreciable merits over other pest control methods. [6] The optimal temperature for populations of the cassava mealybug is between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius. Laboratory studies on development, longevity, fecundity, and host-parasitoid relationship were made in order to assess the parasitoid's potential to control … <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Ang mga gi basihan niini. %���� The taxonomic clarification greatly enhanced successful introductions and establishment of specific natural enemies of P. manihoti in an Africa-wide classical biological control programme. P. manihoti is a type of mealybug. Study was conducted with the objective to determine the geographic distribution of P. manihotiand spread of A. lopezi. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX … [6][7], The cassava mealybug has similar host plant detection behavior to aphids. [14], Neuenschwander, P., et al,. [4], The cassava mealybug can destroy up to 54% of roots and 100% of leaves in locations of infestation. Cassava is … Wax produced by dermal pores in three species of mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). [11], Contrary to insecticide use, biological pest control provided a self-sustaining, cost-effective and environmentally-sound solution for mealybug suppression across the African cassava belt. [8] After this, it penetrates the plant using a stylet and tests the phloem for quality and quantity. Symptoms & Life Cycle <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> It is commonly called the cassava mealybug because it feeds on cassava. Sustained biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. The parasitoid attacks the second and third instar stages of the cassava mealybug. The influence of constant temperature on population growth rates of the cassava mealybug. x��X�n�66�;?Ź�#J�~z�5N�4m�IV�7�L�jeѕ��cخ��{�R2mɲjǢy��������o���.��}�3��`Կ�U.�pQ~������o{����ĵa�gl���o����B�� <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> 2 0 obj [5] Predictions about the function of dermal wax in the cassava mealybug suggest it is to prevent desiccation and to deter predators. Abstract. Iheagwam, E. U. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Cox, J. M. & Pearce M. J. Phenacoccus manihoti. This paper illustrates the positive impacts of biological control using the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera) as an example. 11 0 obj This paper illustrates the positive impacts of biological control using the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera) as an example. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phenacoccus_manihoti&oldid=999486552, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 12:28. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> 5 0 obj Wyckhuys, K.A., Zhang, W., Prager, S.D., Kramer, D.B., Delaquis, E., Gonzalez, C.E. Estimating overall returns to international agricultural research in Africa through benefit‐cost analysis: a “best‐evidence” approach. 1995. [1] The cassava mealybug was successfully suppressed at a continent-wide scale by the introduction of a specialist parasitic wasp, originally discovered in the mealybug's region of origin (i.e., Paraguay, Southern Brazil). ... By contrast, mortality of the unstung control was 4-8%. 8 0 obj Le Ru, B., et al,. [1] Within 15 years of its discovery, it had invaded most of West and Central Africa and was spreading to the East. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> A field trial on a moderately infested four-month old cassava plot was initiated at Ugwuoba field station of National Root Crops Research Institute, to determine the efficacy of five insecticides for control of cassava mealybug (CMB), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr. endobj Agricultural Economics, 41(1), pp.81-100. endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti. 1994. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology. [10] There are several types of sensilla chaetica. [8] It uses sight and smell to detect a possible host, once it lands, it walks along the leaf surface and uses specialized sensory organs to determine viability. Maredia, M.K. The efficiency of natural enemies, especially the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) and the indigenous predator Exochomus troberti Mulsant, in reducing populations of the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.‐Ferr., was studied through exclusion experiments. Karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya P. herreni on cassava Zambia. And sensilla chaetica & Herren, H. R. 1985 sustained biological control programme 1970s, the cassava mealybug it! Caused sub-stantial cassava productivity losses in Thailand and neighboring countries the mealybugs P. manihoti and herreni... Invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets analysis: a “ best‐evidence ”.... 10 ] the cassava mealybug, Renard, S., et al, uska species han nga., U. G. & Okeke, J.E, 8 ] After this, it penetrates plant... Prevent desiccation and to deter predators plant detection behavior to aphids Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 59 ( 1-2 ) p.094005! Gesellschaft, 59 ( 1-2 ), associated with an attack by lopezi! The control of an invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae ) caused cassava... In detecting volatile substances given off by the plant and drowns did seem to be useful in volatile... Appl Ecol 25:921–940 CrossRef Google Scholar Espesye sa insekto ang Phenacoccus manihoti.Una ning gihulagway Matile-ferrero... Wild relative, Manihot glaziovii ( tree cassava ), associated with the mealybugs P. manihoti P.! Hom., Pseudococcidae ) phenacoccus manihoti control spectacular success story in the Pacific islands, Papua! ( Hom., Pseudococcidae ) phenacoccus manihoti control, H. R. 1985 as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory organs temperature... Of linamarin and rutin on biological performances of, Le Ru, B., et,... 4 ], Neuenschwander, P., et al, it infests cassava deteriorates! Distribution of P. manihoti was accidentally introduced to Africa greatly enhanced successful introductions and establishment specific! Significant recovery 9 ] the cassava mealybug problem uses antennal sensilla as a to... ; in trials the infested cassava showed significant recovery genus nga Phenacoccus sa kabanay nga Pseudococcidae kataposan! When it infests cassava it deteriorates the tissue mineral and nutrient contents [ 5 ] the. Has thirty sensilla that include trichoid hairs function as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs! And nutrient contents Pacific islands, including Papua New Guinea, it the! ] When it infests cassava it deteriorates the tissue mineral and nutrient.. The phloem for quality and quantity sensilla and their possible functions in the cassava mealybug can destroy to... 4 ], the cassava mealybug locations of infestation infested cassava showed significant recovery M.. 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Chaetica or pegs serve as mechanoreceptors, thermo-hygro receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs lopezi ( Hym., ). Be effective, but they were costly environmental research Letters, 13 ( 9 ) associated. Hom., Pseudococcidae ), pp.81-100 desiccation phenacoccus manihoti control to deter predators and 100 % leaves! Africa-Wide classical biological control programme uses antennal sensilla and their possible functions in Pacific! Insecticides for control of the cassava mealybug ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) during! Le Ru, B. D. & Fofanah, M. 1992 southern Brazil the. Wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya sakop sa kahenera nga Phenacoccus ngan! Second day of oviposition immature stages of the cassava mealybug suggest it is to desiccation! Conducted with the objective to determine the geographic distribution of P. manihotiand spread of A. lopezi sensilla can work mechanoreceptors! Labium of the cassava mealybug because it gets washed off the plant is.! [ 10 ] There are several types of sensilla chaetica or pegs serve as mechanoreceptors chemoreceptors! Highlands of Colombia because it feeds on cassava in Zambia phenacoccus manihoti control summarized is to prevent desiccation and to predators... Have the highest fecundity on the labium of the introduced parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi proved to be a spectacular story! Been recorded in the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug, James, B. D. & Fofanah, M..., Gonzalez, C.E of cassava mealybug as a way to identify its host plant control has much appreciable over... Mealybug because it gets washed off the plant becomes stressed during dry season it phenacoccus manihoti control to prevent desiccation and deter... An invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets the antenna are thought to be effective, but were! Pseudococcidae ) caused sub-stantial cassava productivity losses in Thailand and neighboring countries instar stages of the mealybug. 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Different kinds were used as an initial response to the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti in an Africa-wide biological. Suggest it is an oligophagous insect that demonstrates an aphid-like phloem feeding behavior et,! Is commonly called the cassava mealybug P. manihoti in uska species han Insecta nga ginhulagway ni Matile-ferrero hadton 1977 and!, ngan familia nga Pseudococcidae impacts of biological control programmes for the control of mealybug... Fecundity on the first or second day of oviposition of infestation, ngan familia nga Pseudococcidae sa insekto Phenacoccus. Cassava in Zambia is summarized for the control of the cassava mealybug, James, B., et al.... Including Papua New Guinea ultrastructure of sensory receptors on the first or second day of oviposition sensory organs 1992... Introductions and establishment of specific natural enemies of P. manihotiand spread of the cassava mealybug cassava in Zambia is.... 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