Location based services integrated into current WLAN systems. This could involve acquisition, partnering, or outsourcing of business functions. Corporate changes such as acquisitions, divestitures, and outsourcing also affect the computing infrastructure. Enabling port security on the access switch allows it to restrict which frames are permitted inbound from the client on an access port based on the source MAC address in the frame. As shown … Choose campus solutions with advanced resiliency, scale, and services. The FCAPS framework defines five network management categories: Fault; configuration; accounting, performance; and, security. •What will the impact of any failure be on applications and user experience? One approach to this problem of scale is to distribute the security services into the switching fabric itself. Dynamic negotiation of the correct IP stack configuration eased moves adds and changes of PCs, printers and other devices. By implementing an explicit rule that enforces that expected behavior, the network design achieves a higher degree of overall resiliency by preventing all of the potential problems that could happen if thousands of MAC addresses suddenly appeared on an edge port. The use of physical redundancy is a critical part of ensuring the availability of the overall network. In a campus environment with mission critical applications, the use of QoS tools and design principles provides enhanced resiliency or availability for those mission applications that are explicitly protected based on their CoS/DSCP markings. The ability of the phones to negotiate both power requirements, PoE, as well as edge port QoS, topology, and security parameters provided for a fairly sophisticated plug-and-play capability. As discussed in the Tools and Approaches for Campus High Availability, this type of problem is best addressed with CPU rate limiting tools (either hardware rate limiters or hardware queuing algorithms) combined with an intelligent Control Plane Policing (CoPP) mechanism. Figure 1-17 Core Layer as Interconnect for Other Modules of Enterprise Network. Introduce a volume of traffic, number of traffic flows or other anomalous condition to find the vulnerabilities. One version of spanning tree and the use of the spanning tree hardening features (such as Loopguard, Rootguard, and BPDUGuard) are configured on the access ports and switch-to-switch links as appropriate. The preferred AAA methods are RADIUS or TACACS+; these should be configured to support command authorization and full accounting. Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) is the Cisco architectural approach to designing advanced network capabilities. This is similar to the way each VLAN in each switch has its own Layer-2 forwarding and flooding domain. Moreover, because large campus networks require more persons to design, implement, and maintain the environment, the distribution of work is generally segmented. Security is no longer a network add-on but is tightly integrated into the entire campus design and many of the capabilities of the campus network that address a security vulnerability also serve to solve fundamental availability problems and/or aid in the dynamic provisioning of network services. These areas enable network designers and engineers to associate specific network functionality on equipment based upon its placement and function in the model. It is often a better metric for determining the availability of the network because it better reflects the user experience relative to event effects. Most legacy wired networks had never been designed or deployed with network authentication in mind. A core layer also provides for flexibility for adapting the campus design to meet physical cabling and geographical challenges. Similarly, any switch configuration must be done only once and is synchronized across the redundant supervisors. Changes in core transport can be made independently of the distribution blocks. Having a summarized view of the connectivity and control plane within the access-distribution block allows the core and the remainder of the network to be managed and changed without constantly considering the specific internal details of the access-distribution block. Configuring the Cisco Integrated Security Features (CISF), port security, DHCP Snooping, Dynamic ARP Inspection, and IP Source Guard on all access ports complements the security access control policy that IBNS and NAC deliver. Figure 26 Virtual LAN (Campus Virtualization). The first is the ability for a converged network to reduce the operational costs of the overall enterprise by leveraging common systems and (more importantly) a common operational support teams and processes. Failures that occur within a module can be isolated from the remainder of the network, providing for both simpler problem detection and higher overall system availability. Nonetheless, it is not a sufficient metric either. Implementing a separate core for the campus network also provides one additional specific advantage as the network grows: A separate core provides the ability to scale the size of the campus network in a structured fashion that minimizes overall complexity. Virtualization—the ability to allocate physical resources in a logical fashion (one physical device shared between multiple groups or multiple devices operated as a single logical device)—provides the ability to design in a high degree of flexibility into the campus architecture. Yes, peer to peer traffic can be blocked by the WLAN system, at the device level. Tools, such as the Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager (EEM), provide the capability to distribute the scripts to switches in the network—rather than running all scripts centrally in a single server. Device resiliency, as with network resiliency, is achieved through a combination of the appropriate level of physical redundancy, device hardening, and supporting software features. One question that must be answered when developing a campus design is this: Is a distinct core layer required? Table 2 Comparison of Distribution Block Design Models, Access Distribution Control Plane Protocols, Spanning Tree (PVST+, Rapid-PVST+ or MST), STP Required for network redundancy and to prevent L2 loops, Spanning Tree and FHRP (HSRP, GLBP, VRRP), Supported (requires L2 spanning tree loops), Access to Distribution Per Flow Load Balancing, (Dependent on STP topology and FHRP tuning), Dual distribution switch design requires manual configuration synchronization but allows for independent code upgrades and changes, Single virtual switch auto-syncs the configuration between redundant hardware but does not currently allow independent code upgrades for individual member switches. They can use whatever network resources are left after all of the other applications have been serviced. Newer features such as MAC Authentication Bypass (MAB), Web Authentication, and the open authentication capabilities being introduced in the Cisco Catalyst switches will provide the ability to address these challenges. Moreover, what is Cisco's architecture for enterprise network? Figure 25 Campus QoS Classification, Marking, Queuing and Policing. Traffic that exceeds a normal or approved threshold for an extended period of time can also be classified as scavenger. The appropriate use of Layer-2 and Layer-3 summarization, security, and QoS boundaries all apply to a virtual switch environment. Figure 17 Impact of network redundancy on overall campus reliability. Each of these principles is summarized in the brief sections that follow: These are not independent principles. Enterprise campus: modularity. The server form or de dissenter, provides a high speed access and the high availability re tendency to the servers. It provides the physical demarcation between the core infrastructure and the access-distribution blocks. •Expectations and requirements for anywhere; anytime access to the network are growing. Later subsections of this chapter define a model for implementing and operating a network. The distribution layer connects network services to the access layer and implements policies for QoS, security, traffic loading, and routing. The purpose of both CDP and LLDP is to ease the operational and configuration challenges associated with moving devices. Beyond its logical position in the enterprise network architecture, the core layer constituents and functions depend on the size and type of the network. And how fast can we fix it if it breaks? Router interface configuration, access lists, ip helper and any other configurations for each VLAN remain identical. However, physical distribution segments might be floors, racks, and so on. Security, QoS, and availability design overlap here as we need to use QoS tools to address a potential security problem that is directly aimed at the availability of the network. The ability to remove physical Layer-2 loops from the topology—and to no longer be dependent on spanning tree to provide for topology maintenance and link redundancy—results in a distribution block design that allows for subnets and VLANs to be spanned across multiple access switches (without the traditional challenges and limitations of a spanning tree-based Layer-2 design). While the use of the AutoSecure feature can greatly ease the process of protecting all the devices in the network, it is recommended that a network security policy be developed and that a regular audit process be implemented to ensure the compliance of all network devices. In addition to leveraging dynamic IP configuration VoIP devices also leveraged dynamic service registration mechanisms (SCCP registration with the Cisco Unified Communications Manager) as well as dynamic network services negotiation. Until recently, it has been recommended that the end devices themselves not to be considered as trusted unless they were strictly managed by the IT operations group. ), Yes, per port ACL's and PVLAN isolation capabilities allow for segmentation of traffic down to the device level. Design a LAN network based on customer requirements. Additional per port per VLAN features such as policiers provide granular traffic marking and traffic control and protection against misbehaving clients. By ensuring that traffic entering the network is correctly classified and marked, it is only necessary to provide the appropriate queuing within the remainder of the campus (see Figure 25). Traffic is load-balanced per flow, rather than per client or per subnet. © 2021 Pearson Education, Cisco Press. The routed access distribution block design has a number of advantages over the multi-tier design with its use of Layer-2 access to distribution uplinks. The redundancy and resiliency built into the design are intended to prevent failures (faults) from impacting the availability of the campus. This is particularly important as the size of the campus grows either in number of distribution blocks, geographical area or complexity. This can be done dynamically via 802.1X, MAB, Web-Auth, or the NAC appliance. NetFlow and NBAR-based DPI used to detect undesired or anomalous traffic can also be used to observe normal application traffic flows. By applying the hierarchical design model across the multiple functional blocks of the enterprise campus network, a more scalable and modular campus architecture (commonly referred to as building blocks ) can be achieved.This modular enterprise campus architecture offers a high level of design flexibility that makes it more responsive to evolving business … While each of these layers has specific service and feature requirements, it is the network topology control plane design choices—such as routing and spanning tree protocols—that are central to determining how the distribution block glues together and fits within the overall architecture. Providing for a high availability in a campus design requires consideration of three aspects: •What SLA can the design support (how many nines)? •Continuing evolution of security threats. Every network eventually requires the installation of new hardware, whether to add capacity to the existing network, replace a faulty component, or add functionality to the network. The access layer is the first tier or edge of the campus. See Table 3. See the "Security Services" section for more information. While a redundant network topology, featuring redundant links and switches, can help address many overall campus availability challenges, providing redundancy alone does not comprise a complete solution. Network engineers faced with a similar fundamental design challenge must also adapt network design strategies to produce a more resilient architecture. Studies indicate that most common failures in campus networks are associated with Layer-1 failures-from components such as power, fans, and fiber links. Layer 2 in the access layer is more prevalent in the data center because some applications support low-latency via Layer 2 domains. In those environments where the campus is contained within a single building—or multiple adjacent buildings with the appropriate amount of fiber—it is possible to collapse the core into the two distribution switches as shown in Figure 2. Figure 1-18 Sample Medium Campus Network Topology. This modularization of the overall design also applies to the selection of devices to fill each of the roles in the overall architecture. The design of campus networks has followed the same basic engineering approach as used by software engineers. While the traditional multi-tier design still provides a viable option for certain campus environments, increased availability, faster convergence, better utilization of network capacity, and simplified operational requirements offered by the new designs are combining to motivate a change in foundational architectures. Location based services are an add-on technology to a previously existing mature environment. The use of some form of AAA for access control should be combined with encrypted communications (such as SSH) for all device configuration and management. In addition to the queuing that is needed on all switch links throughout the campus, classification, marking, and policing are important QoS functions that are optimally performed within the campus network at the access layer. The third metric to be considered in the campus design is the maximum outage that any application or data stream will experience during a network failure. See Figure 26. These basic functions are implemented in such a way as to provide and directly support the higher-level services provided by the IT organization for use by the end user community. Prior to making a final design decision, review detailed design descriptions provided by Cisco to ensure that all of the factors pertinent to your environment are considered. The ability to modify portions of the network, add new services, or increase capacity without going through a major fork-lift upgrade are key considerations to the effectiveness campus designs. Leveraging common authentication backend systems, desktop clients, common security services, and the like—along with the use of common support processes—can result in a more efficient and effective operational environment. –New network protocols and features are starting to appear (Microsoft is introducing IPv6 into the enterprise network). See Figure 28. Catalyst and Nexus switches support access lists and filtering without effecting switching performance by supporting these features in the hardware switch path. The 802.1X policy assignment is no longer just based on global defaults for each device type, as in the case of an IP phone, but on the specific device or user requirements. As an additional step, each device should be configured to minimize the possibility of any attacker gaining access or compromising the switch itself. Figure 1-12 Enterprise Network with Applied Hierarchical Design. The core layer is the backbone for campus connectivity and is the aggregation point for the other layers and modules in the enterprise network. From a physical perspective, the distribution layer provides the boundary between the access-distribution block and the core of the network. Layer 3 equal-cost load sharing enables both uplinks from the distribution to the core layer to be utilized. The introduction of Virtual LANs (VLANs) provided the first virtualization capabilities in the campus. The decision as to which combination of these techniques to use is primarily dependent on the scale of the design and the types of traffic flows (peer-to-peer or hub-and-spoke). Cisco has identified several modules, including the enterprise campus, services block, data center, and Internet edge. As the backbone for IT communications, the network element of enterprise architecture is increasingly critical. It is important to note when considering the overall campus QoS design that the capabilities of the Vista and CSA clients do not provide for policing and other traffic control capabilities offered by the switches. Experiences with unexpected problems such as Internet worms and other similar events however have convinced most network engineers that it is not safe to assume that mission-critical applications will always receive the service they require without the correct QoS capabilities in place, even with all the capacity in the world. The access layer provides the intelligent demarcation between the network infrastructure and the computing devices that leverage that infrastructure. See Figure 18. Protecting the campus switches starts with the use of secure management and change control for all devices. •The growth in the number and type of devices connected to the campus network, such as VoIP phones, desktop video cameras, and security cameras. Wireless systems that may have initially been deployed as isolated or special case solutions are now being more tightly integrated into the overall campus architecture in many cases to provide for operational cost savings. Moving from 12.2(37)SG1 to 12.2(40)SG, as an example. See Figure 10. While all wireless media is susceptible to intentional or unintentional DoS events (radio jamming, RF interference) the use of centralized radio management WLAN designs provides solutions to address these challenges1 . In the event of a component failure, having a redundant component means the overall network can continue to operate. The core devices must be able to implement scalable protocols and technologies, alternative paths, and load balancing. As the network increases in size or complexity and changes begin to affect the core devices, it often points out design reasons for physically separating the core and distribution functions into different physical devices. The introduction of the Cisco Catalyst 6500 VSS and Stackwise/Stackwise-Plus in the Cisco Catalyst 3750/3750E provides the opportunity to make a significant change to the way switch and link redundancy can be implemented. Similarly, a failure in one part of the campus quite often affected the entire campus network. As a result, each of these spanned VLANs has a spanning tree or Layer-2 looped topology. Taking the basic virtualization capabilities of the campus combined with the ability to assign users and devices to specific policy groups via 802.1X provides for flexibility in the overall campus architecture. Note For specific details on how each of these three functional areas are implemented in a campus design, see the Network Virtualization section on the SRND page at http://www.cisco.com/go/srnd. At the same time, these networks have become larger and more complex, while the business environment and its underlying communication requirements continue to evolve. The use of a guiding set of fundamental engineering principles serves to ensure that the campus design provides for the balance of availability, security, flexibility, and manageability required to meet current and future business and technological needs. The various security telemetry and policy enforcement mechanisms are distributed across all layers of the campus hierarchy. This is especially the case when the unwanted traffic is the result of DoS or worm attacks. Currently the best practice is still recommended to deploy a traditional trust boundary model complemented by DPI. The problem of designing the campus to enable the support of virtualized networks is best understood by breaking the problem into three functional parts: access control; path isolation; and services edge capabilities as shown in Figure 30. The campus access layer supports multiple device types—including phones, APs, video cameras, and laptops, with each requiring specific services and policies. Figure 18 Defects per Million Calculation. By dividing the campus system into subsystems—or building blocks—and assembling them into a clear order, we achieve a higher degree of stability, flexibility, and manageability for the individual pieces of the campus and the campus as a whole. In review, the distribution layer provides the following enhancements to the campus network design: Figure 1-14 illustrates the distribution layer interconnecting several access layer switches. The modules of the system are the building blocks that are assembled into the larger campus. The installation of client applications, such as Cisco Security Agent (CSA), is an important step towards completing the end-to-end security architecture—along with NAC and IBNS client software on the endpoints that participate with the rest of the integrated network security elements. Some readers might opt to skip this section because of its lack of technical content; however, it is an important section for CCNP SWITCH and practical deployments. –Adoption of advanced technologies (voice, segmentation, security, wireless) all introduce specific requirements and changes to the base switching design and capabilities. Just as the way in which we implement hierarchy and modularity are mutually interdependent, the way in which we achieve and implement resiliency is also tightly coupled to the overall design. This requirement for increased mobility and flexibility is not new, but is becoming a higher priority that requires a re-evaluation of how network access and network access services are designed into the overall campus architecture. A number of other factors are also affecting the ability of networks to support enterprise business requirements: •The introduction of 10 Gigabit links and more advanced TCP flow control algorithms are creating larger traffic bursts and even larger potential speed mismatches between access devices and the core of the network—driving the need for larger queues. The campus security architecture should be extended to include the client itself. The multi-tier design has two basic variations, as shown in Figure 7, that primarily differ only in the manner in which VLANs are defined. Designing the network to recover from failure events is only one aspect of the overall campus non-stop architecture. First, what is the overall hierarchical structure of the campus and what features and functions should be implemented at each layer of the hierarchy? In addition to tracking traffic patterns and volume, it is often also necessary to perform more detailed analysis of application network traffic. –Network change windows are shrinking or being eliminated as businesses operations adjust to globalization and are operating 7x24x365. Figure 5 Traffic Recovery in a Hierarchical Design. Table 1 Examples of Types of Service and Capabilities, IBNS (802.1X), (CISF): port security, DHCP snooping, DAI, IPSG. Cisco Medical-Grade WLAN LAN Campus Architecture; Announcements. While it is the appropriate design for many environments, it is not suitable for all environments, because it requires that no VLAN span multiple access switches. The ability to locate a device to aid in problem resolution is more critical when the device has the ability to roam throughout the network with no associated change control process. Four distribution modules impose eight interior gateway protocol (IGP) neighbors on each distribution switch. See Figure 12. In general, a network that requires routine configuration changes to the core devices does not yet have the appropriate degree of design modularization. The enterprise campus is usually understood as that portion of the computing infrastructure that provides access to network communication services and resources to end users and devices spread over a single geographic location. The Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD) v1.0 course gives you the knowledge and skills you need to design an enterprise network. The virtual switch design allows for a number of fundamental changes to be made to the configuration and operation of the distribution block. Beginner Mark as New; Bookmark; Subscribe; Mute; Subscribe to RSS Feed; Permalink; Print; Email to a Friend; Report Inappropriate Content ‎11-06-2018 11:27 PM ‎11-06-2018 11:27 PM. The time to restore service, data flows, in the network is based on the time it takes for the failed device to be replaced or for the network to recover data flows via a redundant path. The various control protocols (such as EIGRP or OSPF) all provide the capability to configure specific responses to failure events. Note For additional information on improving the device resiliency in your campus design see the Campus Redundant Supervisor Design chapter. Data center designs differ in approach and requirements. Figure 6 Multi-Tier Campus Access Distribution Block. > –The need for partner and guest access is increasing as business partnerships are evolving. Availability is not a new requirement and historically has been the primary service requirement for most campus designs. Another trend to be aware of is that network discovery and configuration capabilities of CDP are being complemented with the addition of the IEEE LLDP and LLDP-MED protocols. As illustrated in Figure 29, a single physical campus can allow for the allocation of multiple separate logical networks when built with the necessary capabilities. The next subsections detail key enterprise campus design concepts. The tasks of implementing and operating a network are two components of the Cisco Lifecycle model. This topic discusses the enterprise campus module, enterprise edge module, and the service provider edge module. Simple add and move changes in one area had to be carefully planned or they might affect other parts of the network. It is no longer necessary to configure an HSRP or GLBP virtual gateway address, as the router interfaces for all the VLANs are now local. Devices remain in service longer and the percentage of overall cost associated with the long-term operation of each device is growing relative to its original capital cost. The key principle of the hierarchical design is that each element in the hierarchy has a specific set of functions and services that it offers and a specific role to play in each of the design. –Business risk mitigation requires validated system designs. •Reduce the probability of a flooding event through the reduction in the scope of the Layer-2 topology and the use of the spanning tree toolkit features to harden the spanning tree design. Every network is designed to support a specific number of devices on an edge port. It will be essential to integrate these services into the campus smoothly—while providing for the appropriate degree of operational change management and fault isolation and continuing to maintain a flexible and scalable design. The virtual switch is not limited to the campus distribution. The best practices listed in this chapter, such as following the hierarchical model, deploying Layer 3 switches, and utilizing the Catalyst 6500 and Nexus 7000 switches in the design, scratch only the surface of features required to support such a scale. The second of the two principles of structured design is modularity. Once these exposures have been closed, the next problem is protecting the switch's CPU from other vulnerabilities. It provides more explicit control over what is the normal or expected behavior for the campus traffic flows and is an important component of the overall resilient approach to campus design. Common failures in a design with subnets contained within a single logical switch, focus primarily on campus designs is! Trading systems, health care, and fiber links must the network appears broken fill each these. Support multiple device types in diverse locations core campus is a relatively new element to the network of. 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Implementing campus infrastructure, the bottom design is to follow good structured engineering guidelines the integration of wired wireless.
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